Venezuela is between 1 ° and 12 ° north latitude and 60 ° to 73 ° west longitude. Its neighbors are Brazil in the south, Colombia in the west and Guyana in the east.
Venezuela extends 1,100 kilometers in a north-south direction and 1,500 kilometers in a west-east direction. Its highest point, the Pico de Bolívar (4,981 m), lies in the north of the country.
The part of South America north of the equator is divided into three large geological units. In the west and north-west are the Andes, which have been folded and sharply raised in the course of recent geological history, in the east there is the Guyana Shield, made up of crystalline rocks from the ancient world, and in between a broad subsidence zone in which thick layers of rock have been deposited up to the geological present. In Venezuela, these structural elements of the earth’s crust correspond to three large landscape areas : the high mountain ranges of the Andes, the plains and plateaus of the Llanos in the Orinoco catchment area, and the mountainous region of Guyana.
The eastern chain of the Andes splits on the Colombian-Venezuelan border into two deeply indented mountain ranges that enclose the Maracaibo Depression, which is filled with younger, oil-rich layers. The southeast of these two foothills of the Andes, the approximately 5,000 m high Cordillera de Mérida, is extended to the east by the lower, 2,000 to 2,800 m high Caribbean Mountains on the coast.
The mountainous region of Guiana is a more upscale part of the Guiana Shield with undulating hull surfaces and granite and gneiss and striking table mountains made of sandstone that reach heights of up to 3,000 m.
Perfect plains, which gave the Llanos their name (in Spanish means “llano” plain), can only be found in the middle of the wide valley between the Andes and the Guyana mountainous region. At the edges, sandstone tabular lands occupy large areas.
Venezuela – money
Local currency: since January 1st, 2008 Bolivar Fuerte (German: strong Bolivar) 1 Bolivar Fuerte corresponds to 100 centimos. One bolivar fuerte is equivalent to 1,000 old bolivars. The new currency was introduced to reduce inflation.
Currency abbreviations: BsF., VEF
Banknotes circulate in denominations of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 BsF., Coins invalue from 1 BsF. and in 50, 25, 12.5, 10, 5 and 1 centimos.
Currency Exchange: The US dollar is by far the most widely accepted currency, making it the best currency to travel to in Venezuela. Euros and British pounds are less popular.
US dollars, euros and pounds can be exchanged in banks and exchange offices (casas de cambio) in the larger cities. There is a growing black market for changing euros and US dollars, and travelers are often approached to exchange money at the airport and bus stations. The exchange rates are much better than the official ones, but of course there is a risk of being cheated. In addition, the exchange of foreign currency on this parallel market is prohibited by law.
ATMs: are the easiest way to get cash in Venezuela. Most ATMs are connected to the Cirrus and Plus networks and accept Visa and MasterCard as well as EC cards. However, the lines in front of the machines can be long, especially on the first Monday of each month, when banks are closed. It can also happen that the machines run out of money, especially before long weekends.
Credit Cards: Visa and MasterCard are the most widely accepted. With them you get cash and can pay in upscale hotels, restaurants and some shops.
Travelers Checks: should be issued in US dollars by AmericanExpress. The purchase receipt of the travelers checks should always be kept ready, when cashing it is often asked for.
Foreign exchange regulations: Due to the state foreign exchange management, it is not possible to freely convert or exchange the national currency of Venezuela into foreign currency.
Bank opening times: Mon – Fri 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Banks are closed on the first Monday of each month.
According to bridgat, Venezuela is located in the tropical climate zone, due to the different altitudes, the topography and the prevailing winds, the country can be found in a range from the humid tropical to the alpine climate. Most of the country has the rainy season from May to November.
The country can be divided into four different temperature zones, most of which are due to the altitude: the temperatures in the tropical zone (lower than 800 m) the annual average is between 26 ° C and 28 ° C. The temperate zone with most Venezuelan cities, including the capital Caracas, is located between 800 and 2,000 m. The average temperatures are between 12 ° C and 25 ° C. The cool zone is between 2,000 and 3,000 m, here the temperatures reach between 9 ° C and 11 ° C. In the high mountains from 3,000 m altitude, pastures and permanent snow fields are characteristic. The average temperatures here remain below 8 ° C.