He used people from every part of the territory and extended the right of Florentine citizenship, that is the exercise of state offices, to many Pisan, Arezzo, Pistoia, Prato, Volterra, Cortonese, Sangeminianese families, etc. By issuing rules for the whole territory or making those of the metropolis compulsory or by imposing provisions of Roman law as common law, he tried to remove many of those irregularities that the republic had maintained, but which made the prince’s work difficult and late. He looked for workers, builders, seafarers; and he got some from Ferrara, Mantovano, Piacentino, Bresciano, Veronese, from Venice itself. Just as he wanted to be strong on land and kept many armed men especially from Siena, so to be strong on the sea, on that sea in front of him, and build a fleet, improve naval bases, revive the arsenal of Pisa. His ambition, in agreement with Spain which contributes to the expense, to rid the Tyrrhenian of piracy. And he founded, therefore, the order of St. Stephen, militarily industrious. He also wanders territorial enlargements, in the Tuscan region. Cosimo I had possession of Siena, thus doubling the territory of the Florentine state; and bought or purchased in various ways castles and fiefdoms from the Malaspina di Lunigiana, from the counts of Noceto, from others, as later also Francesco I and Ferdinando I, his successors, greatly simplifying the political map of Tuscany and widening the outlets to the sea, ensuring transit routes, planting itself in Pontremoli, the gateway to the region in the upper Val di Magra. But he spots Sarzana at the mouth of Val di Magra, from Genoa; he sees Lucca, very rich. From Corsica, which was already Pisan, and which could now also give it a royal title, Cosimo comes to more than a reminder. And when Sampiero rebels the island and takes it to France, the duke offers Philip II his galleys to drive out the rebel and hold Corsica for his majesty. But Philip II kept Genoa in protection and did not want to hurt it. And then, these Italian principles should not be allowed to grow too much. They are faithful and obedient, but you never know! In the meantime, the Medici came closer to France, starting that policy of which Maria, later married to Henry IV, will be an intermediary. Not that Cosimo wants to pursue an anti-Spanish policy: but he likes that Spain needs him and the duchy. Therefore it tickles the most Christian king: he would like the Turk to always keep the Catholic king in fear. He is in great intimacy with the popes and works a lot with them and has six or seven very partial cardinals there. And in the Italian courts there is a whispers of a dignity and title of king of Tuscany that the pope would be willing to give him. Therefore all the other principles keep their eyes open. On the other hand, it is not easy for these Medici, who also have a lot of stinginess and a merchant spirit, to make kings. And already with Francis I, the tone of the principality is lowered.
No less assiduous activity is carried out further north by Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia, who, born a prince and then stripped of everything, soldier, captain, general for half of Europe, had returned to his life as a prince, under new auspices, in the year 1559, when he had recovered the state. At first, it was truly part of the state, since Turin, Savigliano, Pinerolo, Chieri, Chivasso and some other squares remained in pledge to the French; Asti and Vercelli to the Spaniards. But shortly thereafter, the internal situation of France had offered Emanuele Filiberto the opportunity to get his back. 8 August 1562: Blois Agreement. However, Pinerolo and Savigliano remained with the French: of which the Spaniards were not sorry, because it gave them reason to stay longer in Asti and Santhià. According to Insidewatch, the Savoyard state was still very backward in terms of internal order and economy. Sparse population, almost only of peasants and gentlemen; thousands of large and small feudatories, of which the Luserna, the Piossasco, the San Martino, the Collegno, etc., i.e. the major, allies rather than subjects, united now not so much in dependence on the common sovereign but in the two Guelph and Ghibelline parties that they still held the field. And below, poor people and disheartened by so many hardships suffered, which to observers of the time appeared, except in the region closest to Switzerland, reluctant to any military burden, and could not really be counted on. The young duke began to work on a clay of this kind, with a tenacity of Iron head. He especially proposed to make of his people a militia, faithful and always ready. He understood well how precarious the situation of the state was, in the midst of two potentates who were always waiting to recapture what they had left: and he guarded himself from danger.