It is located between 88°00′ and 92°53′ east longitude and 20°30′ and 26°45′ north latitude. It is washed by the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean). The coastline of 580 km in the south of the country is indented by dozens of estuaries, and is relatively stable only on the slightly indented southeastern coast. In the rest, the deltaic region, it is unstable, the largest of the river mouths have the character of estuaries with many islands. The coastal lowlands of the Sundarbans and the lowlands adjacent to it from the north are subject to the influence of tidal currents, seasonal river floods and monsoon cyclones.
It borders India (4053 km) in the west, north and east and Myanmar (Burma) (193 km) in the southeast.
It is located on the Bengal Delta Lowland, one of the largest deltas in the world. The relief of almost the entire territory is flat, only in the east extending in a direction close to the meridional, the low, slightly dissected mountains of Lushai and Chittagong (the highest point is Mount Keokradang, 1230 km).
It is located in the delta of the rivers Ganges (Padma, the length in the country is 500 km), Brahmaputra (in the lower reaches – Jamuna) and Meghna. Other rivers are Tista, Surma, Karnaphuli, Rupsa. The Ganges-Brahmaputra system occupies the 3rd place in terms of water content among the world’s rivers after the Amazon and the Congo. The flow of the Brahmaputra exceeds 600 km3, the Ganges – 430, Meghna – 30 km3. The low alluvial-deltaic territory is crossed by numerous rivers and channels with oxbow lakes, and abounds in lakes and canals. The water surface is 10 thousand km2, 7% of the total area.
Predominantly alluvial soils, loose loamy and sandy loamy are widespread. Restore fertility due to river sediments. There are silty soils. The soils are loose and easy to work.
The plant world is not rich, cultivated vegetation dominates. Forests have survived mainly only in the southeast in mountainous areas and in the south (mangrove formations) and occupy 16% of the area. In the mountains and on the uplands, the garjan tree and other valuable types of building timber, as well as various types of bamboo, dominate. The south is dominated by the sundri tree. Black mangroves-rhizophores grow near the sea.
Among wild animals, most of all are monkeys living in large herds. There are predators – Bengal tiger, leopard, striped hyena. Numerous rodents and insects. There are many birds, including the Bengal vulture, which cleans the area from carrion. Migratory birds arrive in the delta for wintering. Snakes and crocodiles are widely represented. The Bay of Bengal is rich in fish, shrimps and other marine life. Carp and labyrinth fish predominate in inland fresh waters.
There are few minerals. Recently, exceptionally large reserves of natural gas have been discovered (proven volumes are 1.5–2.1 trillion m3). There are deposits of coal at great depths, limestone and refractory clays, and radioactive sand has been found. The bowels have not been studied enough.
According to bridgat, the climate is hot and humid, characteristic of the equatorial monsoon zone. The coldest month is January, the hottest month is April. Average annual temperatures increase in the direction from the northeast to the southwest. The country occupies one of the first places in the world in terms of rainfall. On average, St. 1900 mm of precipitation, their amount is especially high in the northeast (more than 3000 mm). It rains mainly from July to October.
The population of Bangladesh
Population density 925 people. per 1 km2. The population is growing annually by 1.6% with a birth rate of 25% and mortality 9% (2002 estimate). Child mortality 68 people. per 1000 newborns, the average life expectancy is 61 years (according to other sources – 65 years). Net outflow (emigration) – approx. one%. Emigrants go mainly to the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE) and Southeast Asia (Malaysia).
There are 100 women for every 105 men. The age structure is sharply shifted towards young people aged 15–24; according to estimates for 2000, the “youth hump” was 23%. The proportion of people aged 25-64 years is 37%. Children under 14 and persons over 65 accounted for 40%. The retirement age is 60. Urban population 20%.
Literate 56% of residents over 15 years old, 63% of men and 49% of women (2000).
The ethnic composition is homogeneous: 98% of the inhabitants are Bengalis, the rest are non-Bengali Muslims (the so-called Bihari) and representatives of various tribes (Santals, Khasi, Tipera, the most numerous are Chakma).
Linguistic homogeneity is even higher – Bengali (Bangla) is spoken by 99% of the population. The minority languages belong to the Munda, Monkhmer and Assamo-Burmese groups. The educated part speaks English, which is used in office work, external affairs, and the media. Knowledge of Arabic and Persian is widespread, as well as Urdu, Hindi and a number of other Indian languages.
In religious terms, the majority are Muslims – 83%, Hindus – 16%, adherents of animistic cults – 1%.